Sensor Network Applications

1. Traffic Pulse Technology

Mobility: Static

Energy : No constraints

Environment: Open air, can be manually configured, accessible, organized

Operation: active all the time, real time collection of data.

Reusability: Could be used to check temperature or monitor pollution levels.

Architecture: Multi-tiered arch.

2. WINS (military) Wireless Sensing Networks

Density: large arrays of dist. sensors.

Mobility: static

Energy:

Environment: Military environment (desert, forest, and urban terrain)

Operation: fusion of different sensed phenomena to give high quality info.

Reusability: inclusion of multiple sensors on each of the nodes enables fusion of different sensed phenomenologies, leading to higher quality information

Architecture: multinode sensor fusion.

3. WINS (Condition Based Monitoring) Wireless Sensing Networks

Density: depends upon the complexity of the m/c to be monitored

Mobility: static

Energy: no constraints

Environment: monitoring complex machinery and processes.aircraft, rotorcraft, and spacecraft

Operation: dynamically reconfigurable

Reusability: vibration and strain data

Architecture:

4. Reactive Sensor Networks

5. Cougar: The Sensor Network is the Database:

Density: clusters of sensors to allow in-network aggregation

Mobility:

Energy:

Environment:

Operation: query based - when raw sensor data is required, or one wants some aggregated data from multiple nodes

Reusability:It includes acoustic and seismic sensors as well as a GPS receiver. However, any type of sensor may be used with the system, provided that code is available to read the sensor output as an integer, floating point, or string value.

Architecture: Three-tiered architecture. QueryProxy, a Frontend component, and a graphical user interface

6. Eyes - Energy Efficient Sensor Netowrks

Density:

Mobility:

Energy: limited power supply

Environment:

Operation:self-organizing and collaborative sensor networks

Reusability:reconfigurable smart sensor nodes

Architecture:a two-level structure. The lower layer deals with sensors and networking, whereas the upper layer provides distributed services to the application by using the networking and transport capabilities offered by the lower layer

7. Distributed Surveillance Sensor Network:

Density:

Mobility: highly mobile

Energy:The ability to reliably mate with an underwater docking station provides the capability for Odyssey to recharge its internal silver-zinc batteries, giving the vehicle greatly extended endurance without requiring its return to the surface.

Environment: underwater

Operation: Odyssey is an AUV (Autonomous Underwater vehicle) fitted with sensors which moves underwater collecting information. It mates with under-water docking stations which provides energy and also an opportunity for mass data transfer to occur, permitting the vehicle to carry sensors which generate megabytes or gigabytes of data which would be impractical to transmit acoustically.

Reusability:

Architecture:

8. Smart Buildings Admit Their Faults:

Density: "Dense packs" of sensors(since they are cheap) can surround all critical beams and columns,providing extremely detailed structural data

Mobility: Not mobile

Energy: No constraint

Environment: Indoors

Operation: Outfitted with wireless radio transceivers and their own TinyOS operating system, the battery-powered matchbox-sized sensors (UCB Motes) can be built to sense numerous factors, from light and temperature for energy saving applications to location to dynamic response, the key characteristic for civil engineering. Even the tiniest movement of a supporting column in a building can reveal the structural soundness and, for instance, suggest that the column is handling more load than it should due to a problem elsewhere in the structure.

Reusability:sense numerous factors, from light and temperature for energy saving applications to location to dynamic response

Architecture: Smart Dust Motes, tiny and inexpensive sensors developed by UC Berkeley are outfitted with wireless radio transceivers and their own TinyOS operating system, the battery-powered matchbox-sized sensors (Motes).

9. Smart Sensor Networks:

Density: Low density of nodes.

Mobility:

Energy:

Environment:

Operation: The basic idea is to have a number of independent sensors each make a local decision (typically a binary one) and then to combine these decisions at a fusion center to generate a global decision.

Reusability:

Architecture: it may be more useful to implement the distributed detection or estimation using a tree structure.

10. Neural Network Based Sensor Systems for Manufacturing Applications ( chemical sensing systems):

Density: An array of nine tin-oxide gas sensors is used to examine the environment

Mobility: Static

Energy: No constraints

Environment:

Operation:Each optical sensor consists of a silicon detector covered by a narrow bandpass interference filter and is sensitive to a specific wavelength of light in the visible and near-infrared spectrum. By examining the absorption of the liquid at different wavelengths, the neural network is able to identify the chemicals in the liquid.

Reusability: Not resusable.

Architecture: The chemical sensing system is composed of sensing elements,data acquisition system, computer, and neural network implemented in software.

11. Jini Network Technology

Density: moderate, depends on environment coverage area

Mobility: static

Energy: No constraints (cheap)

Environment: outdoor

Operation: Each chemical sensor remotely gather chemical data in worst environments like toxic spills and nuclear incidents. Information data from the sensors are transmitted back to a database where data can be collected through a website. Sensors can be configured to detect gamma ray radiations. It uses wireless transmissions.

Reusability: Not reusable (disposable)

Architecture: Self configuring remote sensors

12. Sensor Network Technology for Joint

Density: depends

Mobility: static

Energy: Low power consumption

Environment: battle fields and sea

Operation:

ADS - Satellite Access management to land base that contains the sensors

DADS - manages battleships. Master nodes, sensor nodes and satellite communication.

CEC ¡V Real time exchange, fire control quality track

THOR ¡V Optical links communications from planes, land, and underwater nodes.

Reusability: Possibly

Architecture: Geo-location based routing and ad-hoc organization. Protocol used ¡V Ethernet, Fibre channel, 802.11b, Blue tooth, FireWire, ATM-SONET

13. DARPA -Defense Advanced Research Project Agency

Density: 800 self-organized wireless sensor network

Mobility: static

Energy: small

Environment:

Operation: event driven operating system to connect a wireless sensor network of 800 nodes.

Reusability: yes, battery

Architecture: Network Embedded Software technology program, UC Berkeley

14. Darpa Sensit Project

Density:

Mobility: dynamic

Energy:

Environment:

Operation: sensor nodes adapt to failures, degradation, manage movement.

Reusability:

Architecture: self assemble central administration. Embedded defense applications.

15. SCOWR Scalable Coordination of Wireless robots

Density:

Mobility: dynamic

Energy:

Environment:

Operation: multi-hop wireless network. aim for scalable, application driven, wireless network service using mobile nodes.

Reusability:

Architecture:

16. SCADDS research project at USC/ISI

Density:

Mobility:

Energy:

Environment:

Operation: direct diffusion, adaptive fidelity, sensor-MAC (S-MAC), localization, time synchronization, self-configuration

Reusability:

Architecture:

17. USAMAT: Unified Scalable Adaptive Mobile Application Toolkit

Density:

Mobility: dynamic

Energy:

Environment:

Operation: audio and video wristwatch, implanted medical, and machine sensor. Aerial dropping or shooting munitions size nodes into desired area; Uses network probing and user tracking. Use to monitor human physiology and vehicle statue.

Reusability:

Architecture: